The present perfect is formed by have / has + past participle
I have driven You have driven He/she has driven We have driven They have driven
Present Perfect use
The present perfect is used to talk about events which happened in the past, and the effects and consequences are still now.
So if we take the sentence ‘my car has broken down’ it means my car broke down in the past and it is still broken down now.
If the car is now fixed we use the past simple: ‘my car broke down but now it is fixed’
Other examples include:
‘I have broken my arm’ (it is still broken)
‘ I broke my arm’ (it is better now)
But if we say WHEN an event happened in the past, we do not use the present perfect, we use the past simple instead:
‘I broke my arm yesterday‘
Present perfect is used with the adverbs ‘just’ / ‘recently’ to talk about things which have happened in the recent past:
’I have just come back from the supermarket’
’I have been to Spain recently it was great’
Present Perfect is also used to talk about repeating and continuing events which may happen again.
’I have been to Spain 3 times’ (and I may go again in the future)
If the event won’t happen again we use past simple:
’I went to Spain 3 times’ (I won’t go again)
The present perfect is used with these adverbs: since, already, ever, never.
‘I have been a lot happier since I started my new job’
To find the difference between the present perfect and the past simple click on the link below: